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Free Radicals and Naturally Occuring Antioxidants

JPRPC | Volume 3 | Issue 3 | September, 2015
Research & Reviews: Journal of Pharmacognosy and
Antioxidants and reactive oxygen species have diverse roles to play in the life of organisms. It has been realized that a
majority of the disease and disorders are mainly due to the imbalance between pro-oxidation and anti-oxidation homeostatic
phenomenon in the body. Pro-oxidation conditions dominate either due to increased generation of free radicals and/or their poor
quenching/scavenging into the body [1-3}.
Oxygen is vital for aerobic processes. However, about 5% or more of the inhaled oxygen is converted to ROS i.e. reactive
oxygen species [4]. Under normal conditions the ROS are balanced by the efcient antioxidant system of the body, but, when the
balance is lost oxidative stress is produced, which through a series of events disrupts the cellular functions causing various
physiological disfunctioning, like cardiovascular disfunctioning, cancer, neurological and other various diseases [5]. Antioxidants
have the ability of protecting organismsfrom damage caused by free radical-induced oxidativestress [6].
The present review deals withfree radicals and the natural antioxidant involved in the scavenging process.
What are free radicals?
Stable molecules usually have paired electrons. However, there are some molecules in which one electron is unpaired or
alone in its orbital, the species are called free radicals. Free radicals are produced whenever a covalent single bond between two
atoms is cleaved in such a way as to leave at least one electron in an unpaired state. Such reactions are referred as homolysis [7].
They are designated by a single dot convention to indicate the unpaired electrons. Common examples of simple free radicals are
chlorine atom, hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, ground state oxygen molecule etc.
Consequences of generation of free radicals
Living things have colonized a wide range of habitats whose oxygen concentrations vary over the full range possible for the
Free Radicals and Naturally Occurring Antioxidants
Malay Bhattacharya1*, Sourav Chakraborty2
1Department of Botany, Kalimpong College, Rishi Bankim Chandra Park, Po.Kalimpong, Darjeeling, West
Bengal-734301, India
2Dhupguri College of Education, Dhupguri, Jalpaiguri, West Bengal, India
Review Article
Molecules in which one electron is unpaired or alone in its orbital are called
free radicals. They have diverse roles to play in the life of organisms as a majority
of the disease and disorders are mainly due to the imbalance between pro-
oxidation and anti-oxidation. Free radicals that may cause damage or dysfunction
in the living system could presumably be prevented from exerting their harmful
effects. All organisms possess efcient antioxidant defense mechanism to
scavenge the free radicals and protect themselves from destructive reactions.
A regulated balance between ROS production and their destruction is required
to maintain metabolic efciency and functions under both optimal and stress
conditions. The defense strategies of the antioxidants are always in high alert to
scavenge or nullify the effect of ROS. Different antioxidants occur naturally in the
body of organisms. The present review deals with free radicals and the natural
antioxidant involved in the scavenging process.
Received date: 07/27/2015
Accepted date: 09/15/2015
Published date: 09/23/2015
*For Correspondence
Dr. Malay Bhattacharya, Department of
Botany, Kalimpong College, Rishi Bankim
Chandra Park, Po.Kalimpong, Darjeeling,
West Bengal-734301, India
Keywords: Antioxidants, Defense, Free
radicals, Natural, ROS and scavenging
JPRPC | Volume 3 | Issue 3 | September, 2015
earth’s surface and near surface environments. Therefore, evolution has provided organisms with a range of defense mechanisms
for existing in the hazardous environment. However, the defense systems are not perfect and damage to various constituents of
the cell constantly occur, as well as accumulate during aging as the mechanism of damage control become less and less efcient
[7]. Under such a condition free radicals attack vital cell components like polyunsaturated fatty acids, proteins and nucleic acids
causing immense damage like altering the uid mobility, ion transport, loss of enzyme activity, protein cross-linking, inhibition of
protein synthesis, DNA damage etc. leading to cell death [4,8].
Lipid peroxidation
Lipids are highly reduced molecules whose structures all prominently feature aliphatic hydrocarbon moieties in some form
or other [9]. Oxygen radicals catalyze the oxidative modication of lipids. The presence of double bond adjacent to a methylene
group makes the methylene C-H bonds of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) weaker and therefore the hydrogen bonds more
prone to abstraction [4]. Lipid peroxidations are initiated by peroxy radicals [10]. So, lipid peroxidation is a self perpetuating process
since peroxy radicals are both reaction initiators as well as products of lipid peroxidation. Lipid peroxy radicals react with other
lipids, proteins and nucleic acids; bring about the oxidation of the substrate by transfer of electrons [4]. The products formed by
subsequent reactions are alcohols, hydroperoxides, ketones, epoxidesetc. Each of the compounds can undergo further reactions,
leading to an increasingly complex mixture of products [7]. Cross-linking also occurs, either between lipid molecules or between
lipid and proteins; and chain scissions of polypeptides also may result [11].Lipid peroxidation leads to membrane damage by
altering the geometry of the alkyl chains and thereby disrupting the lipid bi-layer [7].
DNA damage
The DNA damage by free radicals has been the most extensively studied reaction. It has been found that both nuclear
and mitochondrial DNA is attacked by free radicals. Among the free radicals generated in the cell, particularly hydroxyl radicals
formed by radiolysis of water have been found to be most potential [12]. The main targets of oxidative damage of DNA chain
include the purine and pyrimidine bases as well as the deoxyribose sugar moieties [7]. The nature of damage includes mainly base
modications, deoxyribose oxidation, strand breakage and DNA-protein cross-linking. The consequences of DNA damage include
various mutagenic alterations of the molecule and interference of cell signaling resulting alterations in gene expressions.
Oxidative damage of protein
The amino acids that make up proteins are in general, more oxidized than lipids. They contain a highly oxidized carboxyl
group and partially oxidized amino group. Several amino acids that occur in proteins have been shown to especially susceptible
to oxidative damage. Whether the oxidant is ozone, hydroxyl radical or singlet oxygen, the most reactive species appears to be
cysteine, histidine, tryptophan, methionine and phenylalanine [7,13-15]. Protein damage may occur independently or in conjugation
with lipid damage. Peroxidizing lipid may damage proteins that are associated with them in membranes. It is also possible that
protein damage could occur even in an environment where lipid peroxidation was fully protected [16].
Free radicals produced during mitochondrial electron transport chain stimulate protein degradation. Oxidative protein
damage may be brought about by metabolic processes that degrade a damaged protein to promote synthesis of a new protein. In
the process of cataractogenesis, oxidative modications play a signicant role in cross-linking of protein, leading to high molecular
weight aggregates, loss of solubility and opacity [17]. The consequence of these events may include loss of enzyme activity, cytolysis
and even cell death [18].
Autooxidation of carbohydrates
Carbohydrate autooxidation are usually initiated by electron oxidants such as transition metal ions (Cu++or Fe+++) or oxidizing
free radicals(HO· or RO·) [19]. Intracellular reactions of carbohydrates are usually linked to metal ion promoted oxidation involving
iron and copper. Stabilized free radical intermediates or oxidized products of sugars, including various dicarbonyl intermediates,
react with and damage proteins by cross-linking and condensation reactions [20]
Autooxidation of vitamins
A few vitamins like C and E are well known antioxidants. Others like folic acid are degraded in the gastrointestinal tract under
the acidic condition of stomach. Vitamin D is susceptible to photodecomposition, especially in the presence of photosensitizers,
leading to an endoperoxide [21]. Ascorbate is able to provide signicant protection against decomposition [22].
Free radicals natural by-products of metabolism. They are formed during normal metabolic processes involving energy transfer.
Whenever, molecular oxygen is present in a system where free electrons are being formed, superoxides are generated [1,4,7,23].
Free radicals that may cause damage or dysfunction in either living or nonliving systems could presumably be prevented
from exerting their harmful effects by several means. Either physical or chemical techniques could, in principle be employed to
limit the potential damage.
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Preventive antioxidation
Living organisms employ several such strategies. One approach is simply to avoid oxygen altogether. Many microorganisms
live in environments that are either totally anoxic or limited in oxygen concentration. Other life forms eschew sunlight and occupy
permanently dark environments, such as the ocean depths, subsurface layers of the soil, or caves. The surface of many animals
that do live in presence of sunlight and oxygen are either dark in colour or highly reective, or both, presumably at least in part
because of the potentially toxic effects of light [1,4,7,23].
Chemical antioxidation
The most common and useful approach used is preventing damage to autooxidizable materials is to incorporate chemical
additives in the formulation to deactivate the species that initiate or promote destructive oxidation reactions. Autooxidation
reactions are normally initiated by species capable of producing free radicals, which then undergo rapid subsequent reactions
with molecular oxygen leading to damage. Protective additives may be light absorbing compounds, metal ion complexing agents,
free radical scavengers, peroxide destroying compounds or singlet oxygen quenchers [7].
Free radicals that may cause damage or dysfunction in the living system could presumably be prevented from exerting their
harmful effects by several means. Both physical and chemical techniques could be employed to limit the potential damage [7].
All organisms possess efcient antioxidant defense mechanism to scavenge the ROS and protect themselves from destructive
reactions. A regulated balance between ROS production and their destruction is required to maintain metabolic efciency and
functions under both optimal and stress conditions. The defense strategies of the antioxidants are always in high alert to scavenge
or nullify the effect of ROS.
Naturally occurring antioxidants
The different antioxidants occurring naturally in the body of organisms are described below:
Alkaloids and related compounds: Alkaloids constitutes a wide variety of nitrogenous compounds. They are usually, but not
always, of plant origin, heterocyclic and basic. A possible antioxidant role of alkaloids and related nitrogenous compounds could
be as quenchers of singlet oxygen. Polyamines such as spermine, spermidine and putrescine have been shown to accumulate in
some plants exposed to elevated levels of UV [24]. Boldine, an aporphine derivative, is the principle alkaloid found in the bark of the
leaves of Peumusboldo, was found to inhibit autooxidation is several biological system [7]. Besides these several other derivatives
are associated with antioxidant activity.
Amino acids and peptide derivatives
Amino acids have been variously reported to act as antioxidant. The indole containing aminoacids and derivatives like
tryptophan, melatonin, and tryptamine are known to have antioxidant activities in some systems [25,26].
Beta carotene
The carotenes are a class of terpenoid hydrocarbons found in almost all higher plants. The most abundant of this hydrocarbons
beta carotene has a structure featuring two substituted cyclohexene rings linked by a 22 carbon polyene chain. It is almost entirely
insoluble in water but readily soluble in hydrophobic environments and non polar solvents [7].Carotenoids particularly beta carotene
scavenge free radicals under some conditions. Many studies have demonstrated that beta carotene inhibits autooxidation of
lipids in biological tissues and in food products. Peroxy radicals in particular have been shown either to add to long the chain of
conjugated double bonds present in beta carotene and other carotenoids, or to take part in electron transfer reactions giving rise
to carbon-centered beta carbonyl free radicals [27].
Carnosine: It is sulphur containing peptide that has been suggested to possess antioxidant activity. It is found in muscle
tissue at levels from 1-60mM. Physiologistshave believed that carnosines present at such high levels could be related to its buffer
activity; however, it also appears to be a potential antioxidant. Addition of carnosine to meat products, leads to greatly improved
storage, stability due to inhibition of lipid oxidation27.Several investigators have shown that carnosine has relatively high activity
with hydroxyl peroxide and other free radicals [28].
Chalcones and catechins: Chalcones are natural polyphenolic precursors of avonoids. They occur in plants and have
shown antioxidant activity in several investigations. Butein has shown surprisingly high activity of antioxidant activity [29]. Catechins
or avans, a tricyclic polyphenol related to avonoids and condensed tannins from tea is a potential anticancer agent [30-33].
Epicatechin, a relative of catechin were found to be similar in antioxidant activity.
Curcumin and derivatives: The rhizomes of tropical gingers and turmeric are rich in curcumins, their derivatives and other
potential antioxidants. They have the ability to scavenge almost all free radicals generated in the cell [34]. Curcumin is a very
interesting substance because it generates phototoxic oxidizing species, including HO· and H2O2, when exposed to light, but it also
protects lipid peroxidation as a radical scavenger [34-36].
Ergothioneine: The aminoacid derivative ergothionine is a major sulphur containing constituent of some fungi. Itis not by
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mammals but when ingested it is assimilates and its concentration maintained to the point where it can approach concentrations
in the liver, bone marrow, erythrocytes, and other tissues. Evidence suggests that is likely to provide protection against several
varieties of oxidative stress like lipid peroxidation.
Flavonoids: Flavonoids represent a large and diverse group of phenolic compounds derived from higher plants. Derivatives
of avone display a wide range of substitution patterns and oxidation states including avonols, avonones, avans or catechins
[7]. The compounds appear to possess a variety of mechanisms of action which include free radical scavenging and metal ion
complexation. The reaction of avonoid derivatives with superoxide has been thoroughly investigated. Reactions of avonoids
with singlet oxygen have been studied. It has been found that favonols such as quercetin and setin, which quench singlet
oxygen by chemical reaction, were generally more reactive than those of other types such as avones [33]. Anthocyanins are
cationic polyphenols and are considered as a class of avonoids. Several researchers have found positive responses regarding
the antioxidant activity of this group. Polyphenols, occur naturally in many fruits, account for the majority of antioxidant activity [37].
However, polyphenols can undergovarious reactions in the course of food processing and storage, which affect their stability [38].
Atpresent, the probable toxicity of synthetic antioxidants has been condemned and thus there is a shift towards the use of natural
antioxidants [39]. It is strongly believed that regular consumption of plant-derived phytochemicals may drift the balance towards an
adequate antioxidant status in the body [40].
Free phenolic acids: Metabolites of the shikimic acid pathway, and in particular compounds derived from the C6-
C3phenylpropanoid unit, are virtually universal in plant tissues and are especially abundant in seeds and barks. The basic
structural unit undergoes many alterations in the biosynthesis of phenylalanine, tyrosine, tannins, avonoids, lignin and lignins.
In plants, the free phenolic acids occur as substituted benzoic and cinnamic types. Most tests of the antioxidant effectiveness
of these compounds have shown that the cinnamic derivatives are superior than benzoic derivatives [41]. Antioxidant activities of
caffeic and ferulic acids are also positive in their responses [42,43].
Glutathione: The cysteine containing tripeptide glutathione is one of the most important biological antioxidant. It occurs in
high concentrations in the cytosol of many types of cells including human blood plasma. In addition is also present in organelles like
chloroplasts. It is the key component of a variety of cellular mechanisms including detoxication of foreign metabolites, maintenance
of growth rates and protection against gamma radiation damage [44,45]. Glutathioneis poorly absorbed if ingested, and most animals
synthesize it within their body. The antioxidant biochemistry of glutathione has been summarized [46]. Like other antioxidants it is readily
oxidized, thiols such as GSH, in particular react rapidly with many one-electron oxidants to form thiyl radicals.
Hydroquinones and quinines: Arbutin is a simple naturally occurring hydroquinone derivative found in some plants and has shown
to have antioxidant property. Ubiquinol, another derivative of hydroquinone is found in heart, kidney and liver. The compound is a good
inhibitor of free radical generators and scavenger of the same in lipid systems [7]. Quinines are known to react with superoxide to remove
them [47]. Ubiquinone is able to react readily with peroxy radicals generated from lipids [48]and singlet oxygen [45].
Isoavonoids: Isoavonoids are of restricted distribution in plant kingdom. In fact, only one family Leguminosae commonly
contains them. It is less effective than the avonoids in its antioxidant activity. Genistein isolated from soyabean has been reported
to inhibit the activities of a number of enzymes, and also to promote the synthesis of antioxidant enzymes like catalase [49].
Lignans: C6-C3 dimers of varying degrees of complexity have been found to be antioxidants. Their activity tends to be
correlated with the number of phenoxy or alkoxy substituents in the compound7. Kadsurin, isolates from Kadsuraheteroclita was
found to inhibit lipid peroxidation [50].
Lipoic acid: This compound is synthesized from linoleic acid and occurs naturally in many organisms like micro organisms,
plants and animals. It acts as an important coenzyme and growth factor7. It sometimes occurs as amide derivative. It is a potential
antioxidant, so it is used in liver disorder and as an antidote for poisoning.
Ovothiol: The non protein aminoacid ovothiol is a thiol derivative of histidine that is found in marine animals and parasitic
protozoa [51].The combinations of readily oxidized functional groups in this compound make it an extremely effective antioxidant.
Renitol and derivatives: They share many of the structural features of carotenoids and the assumption has been that they
could also exhibit antioxidant activities [7].
Tetrapyrroles: Bilirubin is a linear tetrapyrrolic bile pigment found in blood inhibits a number of free-radical induced oxidation
reactions, probably because of its reactivity with peroxy radicals [52]. They are also well known sensitizers of singlet oxygen formation
and highly effective physical quenchers. It also reacts with superoxide [47] Chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b and their related compounds
are considered as potential antioxidants, of which Chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b shows maximum scavenging potential.
Uric acid and other purines: Uric acid is the most-studied and apparently the most active antioxidant having a purine
structure [7]. Uric acid occurs in high concentrations in excretory products of many animals and was considered a total waste
product with no biological functions. But researchers have found that uric acid is an effective antioxidant in biological systems
containing DNA and lipids [53-55]. Uric acid is a potential scavenger of Hydroxyl and peroxy radical [56,57]. It is also effective in reducing
blood plasma concentration of ozone [58].
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Vitamin C: Vitamin C is found in some fruits, aqueous fractions of animal tissues including the spinal cord, lung, eye,
blood plasma etc. Although most organisms are able to synthesize it, a few have to obtain it in their diets. Ascorbic acid is a
potential antioxidant against hydroxyl radical, peroxy radical and singlet oxygen [59,60]. However, the reaction efciency of ascorbate
is partially ameliorated by the ability of it to produce superoxide upon its own oxidation by molecular oxygen [7].
Vitamin E and related compounds: Tocopherols and related substances are compounds found in high concentrations in
certain vegetable oils, grains and other plant products and at much lower concentrations in animal tissues. This most potent
antioxidant agent is very important to maintain cell membrane and other cell parts. The concentration of vitamin E, even if
low is adequate to prevent most instances of autooxidative damage in normally functioning cells. There are several isomers
of tocopherol, of which α, β, γ and δ are most abundant. The order of antioxidant activity among the tocopherols is ordinarily
α→β→γ→δ. Vitamin E analogues like prunusols A and B are also good antioxidants [61].
With increase in the impetus on research in medical science and more particularly in nding remedies by plants, studies
in antioxidants have been increased tremendously. Medicinal plants are now not only discussed by herbalists but chemists are
more attracted to their chemical constituents. This bridge between herbalists and chemists has open up new dimensions in
phytochemistry, for which antioxidants have become more relevant with new sources of antioxidants being discovered almost
every day.
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... Flavonoids are considered as important antioxidant molecules that appear to possess a variety of mechanisms of action including free radical scavenging [22]. The presences of flavonoids in the extracts are tested for their antioxidant activity. ...
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Beneficial properties of shade trees of tea plantations other than their medicinal properties have been extensively studied. This research was initiated to explore the properties of some shade trees with special emphasis on their antioxidant and antibacterial properties. Leaves from shade tree like Dalbergia sissoo (DS), Cassia siamea (CS), Derris robusta (DR), Leucaena leucocephala (LL), Acacia lenticularis (AL) and Melia azedarach (MA) were used for the study. Characterization of shade tree leaves by determination of moisture, crude fibre and ash content and tests of non polar – polar solvent extracts for steroid, tannins, cardiac glycosides and coumarin, free radical scavenging, ferric reducing power, NO scavenging activities, quantification of Flavonoids and antibacterial activity were conducted. The average moisture, crude fibre and ash percentage of shade tree plants were found to be 62.95, 11.28 and 1.86 respectively. Methanol, ethanol, acetone and ethyl acetate respectively proved to be the most potent solvent for various phytochemical extractions as it gave positive results for tests like tannin, steroid, cardiac glycosides and coumarin. AL (91.46%), DR (92.69%), LL (94.32%) and MA (93.34%) leaf extracts showed a high level of DPPH scavenging activity in their water extracts. In DS (88.11%) and CS (83.23%) maximum DPPH scavenging activity was observed in Diethyl ether and Methanol extracts respectively. Acetone extracts were more active than the water extracts in exhibiting ferric reducing power and NO scavenging activity. Summation of the quantity revealed that DS showed maximum presence of flavonoids and acetone as most potential for isolation of flavonoids. The decreasing order of summative antibacterial activity was recorded in DS, followed by CS, DR, AL, MA and LL. Chloroform showed the highest summative inhibition zone followed by ethanol, ethyl acetate, diethyl ether, acetone, water, hexane, benzene and methanol. The antioxidant and antibacterial potential of shade trees were established.
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The origin of diseases of multifactorial nature is being understood now due to vitiation in the basic homeostatic balance phenomenon in the body. A majority of disease conditions like atherosclerosis, hypertension, ischaemic diseases, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinsonism cancer and inflammatory conditions are being considered caused primarily due to the imbalance between pro-oxidant and antioxidant homeostasis. Antioxidant principles from natural resources possess multiface-tedness in their multitude and magnitude of activities and provide enormous scope in correcting the imbalance. Therefore, much attention is being directed to harness and harvest the antioxidant principles from natural resources. In the light of present understanding about the role of free radicals in pathogenesis of multiple diseases, this article provides an account of multifaceted activities of antioxidants and discusses the multiple approach due to which these phytochemicals deserve proper position in therapeutic armamentarium.
The radical scavenging properties of melatonin, structurally-related indoles and known antioxidants were investigated in kinetic competition studies using the specific radical trapping reagent 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS). In the presence of highly reactive radicals, ABTS is oxidized to the stable thiazoline cation radical, ABTS*+ which, due to its intense green color, can be measured photometrically at 420 nm absorbance. The indoles melatonin, 5-methoxytryptophol, 5-methoxyindole acetic acid and 5-methoxytryptamine as well as the phenolic and thiolic antioxidants ascorbic acid, Trolox, and glutathione inhibited ABTS cation radical formation and catalyzed ABTS radical cation reduction. Melatonin was the most potent radical scavenger and electron donor when compared with the methoxylated indole analogs and the other antioxidants tested. Melatonin, the methoxylated indole analogs and the other antioxidants tested acted as potent electron donors which scavenged initiating and propagating radicals and repaired oxidative damage due to electrophile intermediates.
The cells of the adult human brain consume ≈ 20% of the oxygen utilized by the body although the brain comprises only 2% of the body weight. Reactive oxygen species, which are produced continuously during oxidative metabolism, are generated at high rates within the brain. Therefore, the defense against the toxic effects of reactive oxygen species is an essential task within the brain. An important component of the cellular detoxification of reactive oxygen species is the antioxidant glutathione. The main focus of this short review is recent results on glutathione metabolism of brain astrocytes and neurons in culture. These two types of cell prefer different extracellular precursors for glutathione. Glutathione is involved in the disposal of exogenous peroxides by astrocytes and neurons. In coculture astrocytes protect neurons against the toxicity of reactive oxygen species. One mechanism of this interaction is the supply by astrocytes of glutathione precursors to neurons.