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Review
. 2018 Jun 27;2018:6241017.
doi: 10.1155/2018/6241017. eCollection 2018.

Rutin as a Potent Antioxidant: Implications for Neurodegenerative Disorders

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Free PMC article
Review

Rutin as a Potent Antioxidant: Implications for Neurodegenerative Disorders

Adaze Bijou Enogieru et al. Oxid Med Cell Longev. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

A wide range of neurodegenerative diseases (NDs), including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and prion diseases, share common mechanisms such as neuronal loss, apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Intervention strategies using plant-derived bioactive compounds have been offered as a form of treatment for these debilitating conditions, as there are currently no remedies to prevent, reverse, or halt the progression of neuronal loss. Rutin, a glycoside of the flavonoid quercetin, is found in many plants and fruits, especially buckwheat, apricots, cherries, grapes, grapefruit, plums, and oranges. Pharmacological studies have reported the beneficial effects of rutin in many disease conditions, and its therapeutic potential in several models of NDs has created considerable excitement. Here, we have summarized the current knowledge on the neuroprotective mechanisms of rutin in various experimental models of NDs. The mechanisms of action reviewed in this article include reduction of proinflammatory cytokines, improved antioxidant enzyme activities, activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade, downregulation of mRNA expression of PD-linked and proapoptotic genes, upregulation of the ion transport and antiapoptotic genes, and restoration of the activities of mitochondrial complex enzymes. Taken together, these findings suggest that rutin may be a promising neuroprotective compound for the treatment of NDs.

Figures

Figure 1
Various processes shown to be dysregulated in neurodegenerative disorders.
Figure 2
Diagram showing the chemical structure of rutin.
Figure 3
Schematic diagram showing the role of oxidative stress (OS) in Alzheimer's disease.
Figure 4
Schematic diagram showing the role of oxidative stress in Parkinson's disease.
Figure 5
Schematic diagram showing the involvement of oxidative stress in Huntington's disease.
Figure 6
Schematic diagram showing the involvement of oxidative stress in prion diseases.

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